This policy brief aims to present to policy-shapers and policy-makers at the national and European level some selected recommendations based on the main outcomes of EU IDEA – Integration and Differentiation for Effectiveness and Accountability. We found that differentiated integration and cooperation have been and will remain a necessity in Europe in order to allow the resilience and functioning of the EU system, but a number of corrective actions should be taken to make it not only compatible with, but also conducive to a more effective, sustainable and democratic Union.


1. The challenge of effectiveness
2. The challenge of sustainability
3. The challenge of democracy
10 points to make a differentiated Unioneffective, sustainable and democratic

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