Policy Recommendations for a Differentiated Union: Ensuring Effectiveness, Sustainability and Democracy
Nicoletta Pirozzi and Matteo Bonomi
This policy brief aims to present to policy-shapers and policy-makers at the national and European level some selected recommendations based on the main outcomes of EU IDEA – Integration and Differentiation for Effectiveness and Accountability. We found that differentiated integration and cooperation have been and will remain a necessity in Europe in order to allow the resilience and functioning of the EU system, but a number of corrective actions should be taken to make it not only compatible with, but also conducive to a more effective, sustainable and democratic Union.
1. The challenge of effectiveness
2. The challenge of sustainability
3. The challenge of democracy
10 points to make a differentiated Unioneffective, sustainable and democratic