Finnish Institute of International Affairs (FIIA), Finland

Finnish Institute of International Affairs, Istituto Affari Internazionali, Egmont – Royal Institute for International Relations, European Policy Centre, Centre for European Reform, Centre for International Information and Documentation in Barcelona, Sabancı University, Institute of International Relations

The objective of the WP5 is to examine institutional arrangements and policy practice of differentiation in the field of EU’s foreign, security and defence policy, and discuss opportunities, benefits and risks of more or less differentiation. The WP5 will examine the implications of differentiation for effective governance by analysing differentiated integration and external differentiation in this policy field and discuss their sustainability. In doing so, the WP5 will also elucidate the implications of differentiation to the foundational elements of EU’s constitutionalism and identity and democratic accountability.

More specifically, the WP will:

  1. analyse the formal and informal institutions and practices of differentiation in the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and EU defence, and discuss their effectiveness and sustainability;
  2. assess the nexus between the internal and external differentiation in light of the enlargement of, and economic cooperation and political association with, the EU;
  3. and generate policy recommendations based on the analysis and findings.